Multidimensional Motif Discovery

Binder

Finding a Motif in Multidimensional Time Series Data with MSTUMP

This tutorial utilizes the main takeaways from the Matrix Profile VI research paper and requires STUMPY v1.6.1 or newer. Also, the word “dimensionality” is overloaded for multi-dimensional time series since it is often used to refer to both the number of time series and to the number of data points in a subsequence. For clarity, we restrict our use of “dimensions” to refer only to the number of time series and not to the number of data points.

Previously, we had introduced a concept called time series motifs, which are conserved patterns found within a 1-dimensional time series, \(T\), that can be discovered by computing its matrix profile using STUMPY. This process of computing a matrix profile with one time series is commonly known as a “self-join” since the subsequences within time series \(T\) are only being compared with itself. Since the first 1-dimensional motif discovery algorithm was introduced in 2002, a lot of effort has been made to generalize motif-finding to the multi-dimensional case but producing multi-dimensional matrix profiles are computationally expensive and so extra care must be taken to minimize the added time complexity. Also, while it may be tempting to find motifs in all available dimensions (i.e., a motif must exist in all dimensions and occur simultaneously), it has been shown that this rarely produces meaningful motifs except in the most contrived situations. Instead, given a set of time series dimensions, we should filter them down to a subset of “useful” dimensions before assigning a subsequence as a motif. For example, take a look at this motion capture of a boxer throwing some punches:

[1]:
from IPython.display import IFrame

IFrame(width="560", height="315", src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2CQttFf2OhU")
[1]:

If we strictly focus on the boxer’s right arm in both cases, the two punches are almost identical. The position of the right shoulder, right elbow, and right hand (a three dimensional time series) are virtually the indistinguishable. So, identifying this punching motif is relatively straightforward when we limit ourselves to only a subset of all of the available body movement dimensions. However, if we incorporate the full set of motion capture markers from all of the limbs (i.e., increasing the number of dimensions from three), the differences captured by the left arm and the subtle noise in the footwork actually drowns out the the similarity of the right arm motions, making the previous punching motif impossible to find. This example demonstrates how classic multidimensional motif discovery algorithms are likely to fail since they try to use all of the available dimensions. So, not only do we need an efficient algorithm for computing the multi-dimensional matrix profile but we also need to establish an informed approach to guide us in selecting the relevant subset of dimensions that are to be used in identifying multi-dimensional motifs.

In this tutorial, we will explain precisely what a multi-dimensional matrix profile is and then we’ll learn how to compute it using the mstump function (i.e., “multi-dimensional STUMP”) by exploring a simple toy dataset. To conclude, we’ll see if we can identify a meaningful sub-dimensional motif (i.e., that only uses a subset of dimensions) in this multi-dimensional time series data.

Getting Started

Let’s import the packages that we’ll need to load, analyze, and plot the data.

[2]:
%matplotlib inline

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import stumpy
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

plt.style.use('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/TDAmeritrade/stumpy/main/docs/stumpy.mplstyle')

Loading and Visualizing the Toy Data

In this example data, we have a 3-dimensional time series labeled T1, T2, and T3. Can you spot where the motif is? Does that motif exist in one, two, or all three dimensions?

[3]:
df = pd.read_csv("https://zenodo.org/record/4328047/files/toy.csv?download=1")
df.head()
[3]:
T1 T2 T3
0 0.565117 0.637180 0.741822
1 0.493513 0.629415 0.739731
2 0.469350 0.539220 0.718757
3 0.444100 0.577670 0.730169
4 0.373008 0.570180 0.752406
[4]:
fig, axs = plt.subplots(df.shape[1], sharex=True, gridspec_kw={'hspace': 0})
plt.suptitle('Can You Spot The Multi-dimensional Motif?', fontsize='30')

for i in range(df.shape[1]):
    axs[i].set_ylabel(f'T{i + 1}', fontsize='20')
    axs[i].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize ='20')
    axs[i].plot(df[f'T{i + 1}'])

plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_6_0.png

A Quick 1-Dimensional Exploration

Before diving into a multi-dimensional matrix profile analysis, let’s take a naive approach and simply run the classic 1-dimensional motif discovery algorithm, stumpy.stump, on each of the dimensions independently (using a window size of m = 30) and extract 1-dimensional motif pairs:

[5]:
m = 30
mps = {}  # Store the 1-dimensional matrix profiles
motifs_idx = {}  # Store the index locations for each pair of 1-dimensional motifs (i.e., the index location of two smallest matrix profile values within each dimension)
for dim_name in df.columns:
    mps[dim_name] = stumpy.stump(df[dim_name], m)
    motif_distance = np.round(mps[dim_name][:, 0].min(), 1)
    print(f"The motif pair matrix profile value in {dim_name} is {motif_distance}")
    motifs_idx[dim_name] = np.argsort(mps[dim_name][:, 0])[:2]
The motif pair matrix profile value in T1 is 1.1
The motif pair matrix profile value in T2 is 1.0
The motif pair matrix profile value in T3 is 1.1

And when we plot the raw times series again (below) along with their independently discovered motifs (thick red lines), we can correctly match the visually obvious motif pairs in T1 and T2 starting near locations 150 and 350 (dotted vertical lines). Notice that these two motifs aren’t perfectly aligned in time (i.e., they aren’t occurring simultaneously) but they are reasonably close to each and their motif pair values are 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. This is a great start!

[6]:
fig, axs = plt.subplots(len(mps), sharex=True, gridspec_kw={'hspace': 0})

for i, dim_name in enumerate(list(mps.keys())):
    axs[i].set_ylabel(dim_name, fontsize='20')
    axs[i].plot(df[dim_name])
    axs[i].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize ='20')
    for idx in motifs_idx[dim_name]:
        axs[i].plot(df[dim_name].iloc[idx:idx+m], c='red', linewidth=4)
        axs[i].axvline(x=idx, linestyle="dashed", c='black')

plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_10_0.png

However, when we examine T3, its motif pair are overlapping each other starting near position 50 (dotted vertical lines) and they are relatively far away from the motifs discovered in T1 and T2. Oh, no!

In fact, T3 is actually a “random walk” time series that was purposely included in this set as a decoy and, unlike T1 and T2, T3 does not contain any conserved behavior whatsoever despite the fact that the distance between its motif pair is 1.1, a red herring. This illustrates a few important points:

  1. if there are additional irrelevant dimensions (i.e., T3), you will do about as well as random chance at discovering multi-dimensional motifs if you don’t ignore/dismiss those distracting dimensions

  2. if you suspect that there are motifs in only a subset of the time series, how do you know which dimensions are involved, or how do you even know how many dimensions are relevant?

  3. doing motif search on all dimensions is almost always guaranteed to produce meaningless results, even if a subset of dimensions has clear and unambiguous motifs (like our example above)

A quick survey of all current multi-dimensional motif discovery algorithms in the literature (see Section II in Matrix Profile VI) reveals that they are slow, approximate, and brittle to irrelevant dimensions. In contrast, what we need is an algorithm that is fast, exact, and robust to hundreds of irrelevant dimensions and to spurious data. And this is where stumpy.mstump can help!

Multi-dimensional Matrix Profiles

There is no substitution for the multi-dimensional matrix profile definitions provided in the Matrix Profile VI paper (see Section III and Section IV) and so we refer the reader to this quintessential resource for a detailed walkthrough. However, to develop some basic intuition, we’ll share an oversimplified description for computing a multi-dimensional matrix profile but know that the stumpy.mstump function provides a highly efficient, accurate, and scalable variant to the naive explanation provided here.

First and foremost, we must start by dispelling a common misconception regarding multi-dimensional matrix profiles:

Multi-dimensional matrix profiles are not 1-dimensional matrix profiles stacked one on top of each other!

So, what is a multi-dimensional matrix profile? To answer this question, let’s step away from our toy data example for a minute and suppose that we have a “multi-dimensional time series”, \(T = [T1, T2, T3, T4]\), which has \(d = 4\) dimensions and length \(n = 7\) (i.e., there are seven data points or “positions” within each dimension). Then, \(T\) simply has shape \(d\times n\) (or \(4\times 7\)). If we choose a window size, \(m = 3\), then we can define the \(i^{th}\) “multi-dimensional subsequence” as a continuous subset of the values from \(T\) of length \(m\) starting from position \(i\) that has an overall shape of \(d\times m\) (or \(4\times 3\)). You can think of each multi-dimensional subsequence as a rectangular slice of \(T\) and \(T\) can only have exactly \(l = n - m + 1\) multi-dimensional subsequences. In our example, \(T\) has exactly \(l = 5\) multi-dimensional subsequences (i.e., we can incrementally slide a \(4\times 3\)-shaped rectangle across the length of \(T\) only \(5\) times before we reach the end of \(T\)) and, for the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional subsequence, we can iterate over each of its dimensions independently and compute an aggregated “multi-dimensional distance profile” (i.e., three 1-dimensional distance profiles stacked one on top of each other). Essentially, the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional distance profile has shape \(d\times l\) (or \(3\times 5\)) and gives you the pairwise distances between the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional subsequence and all other possible multi-dimensional subsequences within \(T\).

Recall that our ultimate goal is to output something called the “multi-dimensional matrix profile” (and its corresponding “multi-dimensional matrix profile indices”), which has an overall shape of \(d\times l\) (i.e., one set of \(d\) values for each of the \(l\) multi-dimensional subsequences). As it turns out, the values in the \(i^{th}\) column of the multi-dimensional matrix profile is directly derived from the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional distance profile. Continuing with our example, let’s illustrate this process using the fictitious array below to represent a typical multi-dimensional distance profile for the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional subsequence:

ith_distance_profile = np.ndarray([[0.4, 0.2, 0.6, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0.9],
                                   [0.7, 0.0, 0.2, 0.6, 0.1, 0.2, 0.9],
                                   [0.6, 0.7, 0.1, 0.5, 0.8, 0.3, 0.4],
                                   [0.7, 0.4, 0.3, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.7]])

With this, we can now identify the set of \(d\) values that form the \(i^{th}\) column vector of the multi-dimensional matrix profile with shape \(d\times 1\) (or \(4\times 1\)). The value for the first dimension is found by extracting the smallest value in each column of the ith_distance_profile and then returning the minimum value in the reduced set. Then, the value for the second dimension is found by extracting the two smallest values in each column of the ith_distance_profile, averaging these two values, and then returning the minimum averaged value in the reduced set. Finally, the value for the \(k^{th}\) out of \(d\) dimensions is found by extracting the \(k\) smallest values in each column of the ith_distance_profile, averaging these \(k\) values, and then returning the minimum averaged value in the reduced set. A naive algorithm might look something like this:

ith_matrix_profile = np.full(d, np.inf)
ith_indices = np.full(d, -1, dtype=np.int64)

for k in range(1, d + 1):
    smallest_k = np.partition(ith_distance_profile, k, axis=0)[:k]  # retrieves the smallest k values in each column
    averaged_smallest_k = smallest_k.mean(axis=0)
    min_val = averaged_smallest_k.min()
    if min_val < ith_matrix_profile[k - 1]:
        ith_matrix_profile[k - 1] = min_val
        ith_indices[k - 1] = averaged_smallest_k.argmin()

Therefore, by simply advancing the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional subsequence along the entire length of \(T\) and then computing its corresponding \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional matrix profile (and indices), we can easily populate the full multi-dimensional matrix profile and multi-dimensional matrix profile indices. And, hopefully, you’d agree with our initial statement that:

multi-dimensional matrix profiles are not 1-dimensional matrix profiles stacked one on top of each other!

But then what exactly does each dimension of the multi-dimensional matrix profile tell us? Essentially, the \(k^{th}\) dimension (or row) of the multi-dimensional matrix profile stores the distance between each subsequence and its nearest neighbor (the distance is computed using a \(k\)-dimensional distance function as we saw above). We should point out that, for the \(k^{th}\) dimension of the multi-dimensional matrix profile, only a subset of time series dimensions (i.e., \(k\) out of \(d\) dimensions) are selected and this subset of chosen dimensions can change as you vary either the \(i^{th}\) multi-dimensional subsequence and/or \(k\).

Now that we have a better understanding of what a multi-dimensional matrix profile is, let’s go ahead and compute it by simply calling the stumpy.mstump function on our original toy dataset:

[7]:
mps, indices = stumpy.mstump(df, m)

Consequently, the “\(k\)-dimensional motif” can be found by locating the two lowest values in the correspond \(k\)-dimensional matrix profile, mps, (these two lowest values must be a tie).

[8]:
motifs_idx = np.argsort(mps, axis=1)[:, :2]

Finally, we can plot the \(k\)-dimensional matrix profile (orange lines) for all possible values of \(k\) (i.e., P1, P2, and P3) alongside the original time series data (blue lines):

[9]:
fig, axs = plt.subplots(mps.shape[0] * 2, sharex=True, gridspec_kw={'hspace': 0})

for k, dim_name in enumerate(df.columns):
    axs[k].set_ylabel(dim_name, fontsize='20')
    axs[k].plot(df[dim_name])
    axs[k].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize ='20')

    axs[k + mps.shape[0]].set_ylabel(dim_name.replace('T', 'P'), fontsize='20')
    axs[k + mps.shape[0]].plot(mps[k], c='orange')
    axs[k + mps.shape[0]].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize ='20')

    axs[k].axvline(x=motifs_idx[1, 0], linestyle="dashed", c='black')
    axs[k].axvline(x=motifs_idx[1, 1], linestyle="dashed", c='black')
    axs[k + mps.shape[0]].axvline(x=motifs_idx[1, 0], linestyle="dashed", c='black')
    axs[k + mps.shape[0]].axvline(x=motifs_idx[1, 1], linestyle="dashed", c='black')

    if dim_name != 'T3':
        axs[k].plot(range(motifs_idx[k, 0], motifs_idx[k, 0] + m), df[dim_name].iloc[motifs_idx[k, 0] : motifs_idx[k, 0] + m], c='red', linewidth=4)
        axs[k].plot(range(motifs_idx[k, 1], motifs_idx[k, 1] + m), df[dim_name].iloc[motifs_idx[k, 1] : motifs_idx[k, 1] + m], c='red', linewidth=4)
        axs[k + mps.shape[0]].plot(motifs_idx[k, 0], mps[k, motifs_idx[k, 0]] + 1, marker="v", markersize=10, color='red')
        axs[k + mps.shape[0]].plot(motifs_idx[k, 1], mps[k, motifs_idx[k, 1]] + 1, marker="v", markersize=10, color='red')
    else:
        axs[k + mps.shape[0]].plot(motifs_idx[k, 0], mps[k, motifs_idx[k, 0]] + 1, marker="v", markersize=10, color='black')
        axs[k + mps.shape[0]].plot(motifs_idx[k, 1], mps[k, motifs_idx[k, 1]] + 1, marker="v", markersize=10, color='black')

plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_17_0.png

Notice that the (implanted) semantically meaningful motif (thick red lines) can be spotted visually by inspecting the locations of the lowest points (red arrowheads) in either the P1 or P2 matrix profiles but the P3 case has identified the motif (black arrowheads) in an effectively random location, which further reinforces the point that we had made earlier:

if there are additional irrelevant dimensions (i.e., T3), you will do about as well as random chance at discovering multi-dimensional motifs if you don’t ignore/dismiss those distracting dimensions

Additionally, it may seem counterintuitive, but as demonstrated above, the lower dimensional motif(s) may or may not necessarily be a subset of the higher dimensional motif, since the lower dimensional motif pair could be closer than any subset of dimensions in the higher dimensional motif pair. In general, this is a subtle but important point to keep in mind.

So then how do we choose the “right” \(k\)? One straightforward approach is to turn this into a classic elbow/knee finding problem by plotting the minimum matrix profile value in each dimension against \(k\) and then you look for the “turning point” (i.e., the point of maximum curvature):

[10]:
plt.plot(mps[range(mps.shape[0]), motifs_idx[:, 0]], c='red', linewidth='4')
plt.xlabel('k (zero-based)', fontsize='20')
plt.ylabel('Matrix Profile Value', fontsize='20')
plt.xticks(range(mps.shape[0]))
plt.plot(1, 1.3, marker="v", markersize=10, color='red')
plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_19_0.png

Notice that the thick red line curves up sharply right after \(k = 1\) (red arrowhead) like a “hockey stick” and so, naturally, we should choose \(P2\) and its motif as the best motif out of all possible \(k\)-dimensional motifs.

To really drive home this point, let’s add a few more random walk decoys to our toy data set and compare the smallest \(k\)-dimensional matrix profile values again:

[11]:
for i in range(4, 11):
    df[f'T{i}'] = np.random.uniform(0.1, -0.1, size=df.shape[0]).cumsum()

fig, axs = plt.subplots(df.shape[1], sharex=True, gridspec_kw={'hspace': 0})
plt.suptitle('Can You Still Spot The Multi-dimensional Motif?', fontsize='30')

for i in range(df.shape[1]):
    axs[i].set_ylabel(f'T{i + 1}', fontsize='20')
    axs[i].set_xlabel('Time', fontsize ='20')
    axs[i].plot(df[f'T{i + 1}'])

plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_21_0.png
[12]:
mps, indices = stumpy.mstump(df, m)
motifs_idx = np.argsort(mps, axis=1)[:, :2]
plt.plot(mps[range(mps.shape[0]), motifs_idx[:, 0]], c='red', linewidth='4')
plt.xlabel('k (zero-based)', fontsize='20')
plt.ylabel('Matrix Profile Value', fontsize='20')
plt.xticks(range(mps.shape[0]))
plt.plot(1, 1.3, marker="v", markersize=10, color='red')
plt.show()
_images/Tutorial_Multidimensional_Motif_Discovery_22_0.png

Again, the “point of maximum curvature” occurs right after \(k = 1\) (red arrowhead) and so we should continue to choose \(P2\) and its motif as the best motif out of all possible \(k\)-dimensional motifs. While this might seem like a rather manual task, we recommend automating this turning point selection process using the kneed Python package.

The astute reader may have also recognized that the \(k\)-dimensional matrix profile really only reveals the location of a motif in time but it fails to disclose which \(k\) out of the \(d\) time series dimensions contains the desired motif pair. To recover this information, we must compute something called the “\(k\)-dimensional matrix profile subspace”. Luckily, the STUMPY convenience function, stumpy.subspace, can help us with this!

Matrix Profile Subspace

To use stumpy.subspace, we simply pass in:

  1. the multi-dimensional time series, df, used to compute the multi-dimensional matrix profile

  2. the window size, m, used to compute the multi-dimensional matrix profile

  3. the indices for the \(k^{th}\)-dimensional motif pair, motifs_idx[k][0] and indices[k][motifs_idx[k][0]]

  4. the desired (zero-based) dimension, k

[13]:
k = 1
S = stumpy.subspace(df, m, motifs_idx[k][0], indices[k][motifs_idx[k][0]], k)

print(f"For k = {k}, the {k + 1}-dimensional subspace includes subsequences from {df.columns[S].values}")
For k = 1, the 2-dimensional subspace includes subsequences from ['T2' 'T1']

So, after computing the multi-dimensional matrix profile using mstump and selecting the second dimension (i.e., \(k = 1\)), according to the \(k\)-dimensional subspace, the motif should be extracted from T2 and T1 out of all of the possible time series dimensions.

Bonus Section

MSTUMPED - Distributed MSTUMP

Dependent upon the total number of dimensions and the length of your time series dat, it may be computationally expensive to produce the multi-dimensional matrix profile. Thus, you can overcome this by trying mstumped, a distributed and parallel implementation of mstump that depends on Dask distributed:

import stumpy
from dask.distributed import Client

dask_client = Client()

mps, indices = stumpy.mstumped(dask_client, df, m)  # Note that a dask client is needed

Summary

And that’s it! You’ve just learned the basics of how to analyze multi-dimensional time series data using stumpy.mstump (or stumpy.mstumped). Happy coding!